rahil.dev3.develag.com/663.php The main source for prehistory is archaeology , but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. The primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geologic and geographic surveys, and other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals.
Restricted to material processes, remains and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous.
Because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic stage , or sometimes Paleo-Indian. The sub-divisions described below are used for Eurasia, and not consistently across the whole area. The Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.
The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic , which predates Homo sapiens , beginning with Homo habilis and related species and with the earliest stone tools, dated to around 2.
The most widely accepted claim is that H. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, and have a light source at night. Early Homo sapiens originated some , years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic. Anatomic changes indicating modern language capacity also arise during the Middle Palaeolithic. Sites in Zambia have charred bone and wood that have been dated to 61, B.
The systematic burial of the dead , music , early art , and the use of increasingly sophisticated multi-part tools are highlights of the Middle Paleolithic. Throughout the Palaeolithic, humans generally lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies tended to be very small and egalitarian,  though hunter-gatherer societies with abundant resources or advanced food-storage techniques sometimes developed sedentary lifestyles with complex social structures such as chiefdoms [ citation needed ] , and social stratification. Long-distance contacts may have been established, as in the case of Indigenous Australian "highways" known as songlines.
The "Mesolithic", or "Middle Stone Age" from the Greek " mesos ", "middle", and " lithos ", "stone" was a period in the development of human technology between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. The Mesolithic period began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, some 10, BP, and ended with the introduction of agriculture , the date of which varied by geographic region. In some areas, such as the Near East , agriculture was already underway by the end of the Pleistocene , and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined.
In areas with limited glacial impact, the term " Epipalaeolithic " is sometimes preferred. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last ice age ended have a much more evident Mesolithic era, lasting millennia. In Northern Europe , societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands fostered by the warmer climate.
Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviours that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures. Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to middens. In forested areas, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only begin in earnest during the Neolithic, when more space was needed for agriculture. The Mesolithic is characterized in most areas by small composite flint tools — microliths and microburins.
Fishing tackle , stone adzes and wooden objects, e. These technologies first occur in Africa, associated with the Azilian cultures, before spreading to Europe through the Ibero-Maurusian culture of Northern Africa and the Kebaran culture of the Levant. Independent discovery is not always ruled out. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat , millet and spelt , and the keeping of dogs , sheep and goats. By about 6,—6, BCE, it included domesticated cattle and pigs , the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery. The Neolithic period saw the development of early villages , agriculture , animal domestication , tools and the onset of the earliest recorded incidents of warfare.
It ended when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age or Bronze Age ; or, in some geographical regions, in the Iron Age. The term Neolithic is commonly used in the Old World , as its application to cultures in the Americas and Oceania that did not fully develop metal-working technology raises problems. Settlements became more permanent with some having circular houses with single rooms made of mudbrick. Settlements might have a surrounding stone wall to keep domesticated animals in and protect the inhabitants from other tribes.
Later settlements have rectangular mud-brick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms. Burial findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead.
Although some late Eurasian Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, states evolved in Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most Neolithic societies on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian. Wool cloth and linen might have become available during the later Neolithic,   as suggested by finds of perforated stones that depending on size may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights. In Old World archaeology, the "Chalcolithic", "Eneolithic" or "Copper Age" refers to a transitional period where early copper metallurgy appeared alongside the widespread use of stone tools.
During this period, some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. It is a phase of the Bronze Age before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze. However, because it is characterized by the use of metals, the Copper Age is considered a part of the Bronze Age rather than the Stone Age.
An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 7, years ago. The find in June extends the known record of copper smelting by about years, and suggests that copper smelting may have been invented in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time rather than spreading from a single source.
Timna Valley contains evidence of copper mining 9, to 7, years ago. The process of transition from Neolithic to Chalcolithic in the Middle East is characterized in archaeological stone tool assemblages by a decline in high quality raw material procurement and use. The Bronze Age is the earliest period in which some civilizations have reached the end of prehistory, by introducing written records.
The Bronze Age or parts thereof are thus considered to be part of prehistory only for the regions and civilizations who adopted or developed a system of keeping written records during later periods. The invention of writing coincides in some areas with the early beginnings of the Bronze Age. Soon after the appearance of writing, people started creating texts including written accounts of events and records of administrative matters. The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ores, and then combining them to cast bronze.
These naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. The Bronze Age forms part of the three-age system for prehistoric societies. In this system, it follows the Neolithic in some areas of the world. While copper is a common ore, deposits of tin are rare in the Old World , and often had to be traded or carried considerable distances from the few mines, stimulating the creation of extensive trading routes.
In many areas as far apart as China and England, the valuable new material was used for weapons but for a long time apparently not available for agricultural tools. Much of it seems to have been hoarded by social elites, and sometimes deposited in extravagant quantities, from Chinese ritual bronzes and Indian copper hoards to European hoards of unused axe-heads. By the end of the Bronze Age large states, which are often called empires, had arisen in Egypt, China, Anatolia the Hittites and Mesopotamia , all of them literate.
The Iron Age is not part of prehistory for all civilizations who had introduced written records during the Bronze Age. Most remaining civilizations did so during the Iron Age, often through conquest by the empires, which continued to expand during this period. For example, in most of Europe conquest by the Roman Empire means that the term Iron Age is replaced by "Roman", " Gallo-Roman " and similar terms after the conquest. In archaeology, the Iron Age refers to the advent of ferrous metallurgy. The adoption of iron coincided with other changes in some past cultures, often including more sophisticated agricultural practices, religious beliefs and artistic styles, which makes the archaeological Iron Age coincide with the " Axial Age " in the history of philosophy.
Although iron ore is common, the metalworking techniques necessary to use iron are very different from those needed for the metal used earlier, and iron was slow-spreading and for long mainly used for weapons, while bronze remained typical for tools, as well as art. All dates are approximate and conjectural, obtained through research in the fields of anthropology , archaeology , genetics , geology , or linguistics. They are all subject to revision due to new discoveries or improved calculations.
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Klasies River Caves , population genetics. There is some debate as to whether these remains represent anatomically modern humans. Anatomically modern human discovered with rare temporal bone pathology. West Asia , Arabia. Tools found in the Dhofar Governorate correspond with African objects from the so-called 'Nubian Complex', dating from , years ago. According to archaeologist Jeffrey I. Rose, human settlements spread east from Africa across the Arabian Peninsula. Democratic Republic of the Congo. Semliki harpoon heads carved from bone.
Armand Mijares with Dr. It's the earliest human fossil ever found in Asia-Pacific. Far West , Australia. The oldest human skeletal remains are the 40,year-old Lake Mungo remains in New South Wales, but human ornaments discovered at Devil's Lair in Western Australia have been dated to 48, BP and artifacts at Madjedbebe in Northern Territory are dated to ca. Northeast Region , Brazil. Hypothetical Pleistocene peopling of the Americas: Genetic research indicates arrival of humans in Japan by 37, BP.
Southeast Asia , Indochina. In an ancient skull was recovered from a cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos which is at least 46, years old, making it the oldest modern human fossil found to date in Southeast Asia. Grotta del Cavallo , Apulia. Two baby teeth discovered in Apulia in are the earliest modern human remains yet found in Europe. Great Britain , United Kingdom. Three Paleolithic flutes belonging to the early Aurignacian , which is associated with the assumed earliest presence of Homo sapiens in Europe Cro-Magnon.
It is the oldest example of prehistoric music. A hammer made from reindeer horn similar to those used by the Bromme culture was found in The discovery pushed back the earliest evidence of human presence in Lithuania by 30, years, i.
Optically stimulated luminescence results from the site suggest a date ca. Rising sea level left Tasmania isolated after BP. A human skull in Sarawak, Borneo Archaeologists have claimed a much earlier date for stone tools found in the Mansuli valley, near Lahad Datu in Sabah , but precise dating analysis has not yet been published.
Archaeological evidence shows that 40, years ago, some of the first farmers came to New Guinea from the South-East Asian Peninsula.
Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic Radiocarbon dating has allowed key transitions in prehistory to be dated, such as the end of the last ice age, and the beginning of the Neolithic and . The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make . The oldest sites containing tools are dated to – mya. of the physicist and chemist in laboratories determining dates by the carbon
Hong Kong , PRC. Earliest evidence of human not necessarily anatomically modern humans presence at Arctic latitudes. Central Asia , Tibetan Plateau.